Robert Black and Jane Mouton Ohio State Leadership Studies, focused on two criteria consistent behavior of components, the concern for production (activities), and a concern for people. Concern for the production includes leader’s attitude, processes, work efficiency, and the volume of production. Concern for the people includes personal commitment, preserve dignity and confidence in the group to maintain relationships and to ensure good working conditions.
They recognized that it was possible; care for the production is independent of a concern for people. It is therefore possible to have a strong leader and a weak hand, both strong and weak, both, or any changes to the route. They developed a series of questions, answers, allowing them to draw these two key dimensions of leadership in the network structure of the axes, which are commonly known as a Blake’s Grid.
High concern for production will score 9 and high concern for people will also score 9, two coordinates of the grid shows the share of each of these concerns. Five styles outlined in the grid are as follows:
- The task-oriented style (9, 1) is in the best Taylor tradition. Men are treated as a commodity, like machines. The leader is responsible for planning, directing and controlling the work of subordinates. However, although this style can achieve high production, there are notable differences. This is an approach to theory X and in some circles of the creative energy many be challenged trying to beat the system. Subordinates can become indifferent and apathetic or rebellious.
- The Country Club Style (1, 9) People are encouraged and supported, and gaps are seen, on the basis that people do their best, and coercion cannot improve substantially. “Country Club” as Black calls it, has certain disadvantages. This permeates often ineffective, quasi-monopoly, many conflicts, such as railways, health services, local governments, industry and publishing of local newspapers, have appeared in much of this management style has taken the easy option in previous years.
- The impoverished Style (1, 1) is almost impossible to imagine. Although no commercial organization cannot survive with a leadership so poor and it is doubtful that even non-profit marking organization could also. This style can be found on micro-scale, for example, supervisor abdicates responsibility and leaves the job they see fit. A failure for some reason always blamed the down the line. The contact is often downplayed, and commitment to the issues raised is almost nonexistent. Monitoring typically 1.1 manager is a frustrated person bypassed for promotion, pushed aside, have been a routine task for years, perhaps because of lack of personal maturity.
- The middle road (5, 5) is a happy medium. This view increases the productivity and considers people, but not “over” anyway. It is a style of “eye for an eye”, neither too loose nor too coercive, probably as a result of the feeling that any improvement is idealistic and impractical.
- The team style (9, 9) may be idealistic; it advocates a high degree of concern for production, and wealth for the people who in turn generates output. This style is the effort to find the best solutions and most effective for the highest possible level of production, all parties to contribute and where everyone finds his own sense of accomplishment.
Implicitly, that leaders should strive to 9, 9 combinations of target-oriented team approach to take for best results through participation, involvement, commitment and resolve conflicts, in which anyone can contribute. According to Black and Mouton, individuals can adapt the style to become more efficient in the personality, and the team can build the synergy in order to increase production above the level that could be achieved individually.
The managerial grid is based on the assumption that the concern for production and concern for people are not incompatible. In this sense, get ideas from the grounds of Douglas McGregor, who has examined the basic assumptions about human behavior that underlie the actions of management. He defined two opposing images of human nature, which he called Theory X and Theory Y, and suggested that the style of leadership oversight will depend on the proper position on how to behave in subordinates.
Douglas McGregor proposed an approach to democratic-authoritarian leadership style. His theory X leaders – authoritarian – it’s hard for strict enforcement of the penalty / reward system. Contrasting style is that of theory Y leader.
Theory X assumes that people dislike work and responsibility. Therefore, should be coerced or manipulated, with the supervision can be focused, and leaders with high scores on “concern for the production of the” axis.
Theory Y requires that people appreciate your work. Motivate the individual seeking self-realization, control is more likely to question the individual and the way in which leaders have a high score on the “concerns of people “axis.
– Khuram Munir
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